Attukal Bhagavathy Amman Temple is one of the famous shrines in south kerala. It is situated in Trivandrum City. It is the place where Millions of women annually gather together for famous Attukal Pongala Festival. Pongala festival usually held in the month of February/March. Attukal pongala entered into the Guinness Book of world record in the year 2009. Every People Who visit Padmanabha swamy temple, also come to visit this divine place. The Gopuram of the temple is decorated with many sculptures, which is an architechtural blend of both Tamil and kerala culture. These sculptures tell us the story of kannaki charitham, Dakshayaga etc. The Attukal Devi is supposed as Kannaki, who is the incarnation of Goddess Vishnumaya.
History Of Attukal Temple
There are two stories related to the origin of temple. The first story goes like this. Mulluveetil is an ancient house in this place.
One day in an evening the karanavar(head of the family)was doing his oblation in the Killi River. There he saw a beautiful little girl nearby the river. The girl requested the karanavar to help her in crossing the river. The Karanavar helped the girl, stunned by seeing a little girl alone the river side, he took the girl to his house. The Other members of the family gave a warm welcome to the girl. After some time the little girl disappeared from that house. On that day the Karanavar saw a dream. In the dream the girl revealed herself as the goddess, the incarnation of Goddess Vishnumaya. The girl shown a grove near his house and said that she had drawn 3 lines in a particular spot in the grove, he should build a shrine in that place. The next day the karanavar went to the spot and saw the lines and immediately a temple was built in that place.
The second mythology of the origin of the Attukal temple is related to Chilappathikaram, a famous work composed by Elenkovadikal in sangam period. Chilappathikaram says the story of Kannaki and son of a rich merchant Kovilan. Kannaki was Kovilan’s wife. After their marriage, Kovilan fell into love with a dancer Madhavi. He spent all his wealth for Madhavi. When he lost every thing he returned back to kannaki. At that time the only wealth remained with her was a pair of leg anklets. Kannaki told Kovilan to sell one of her anklet. Kovilan went to the market to sell this anklet. At that time Madhurai was ruled by King Nedunj Cheliyan1, who belong to Pandya Dynasty. When he came to the market soldiers of pandya Raja mistaken that the anklet with Kovilan belonged to the Queen of the kingdom. The Queen’s Ornament was stolen by some one. Angered king Ordered to kill Kovilan. When Kannaki heard the news, she rushed to the Palace and showed the another anklet with her. The anklet of queen’s was made of pearls but the kannaki’s anklet was made with Ruby. Distressed king and Queen end their life after this incident. Thus Kannaki cursed that entire Madurai kingdom be burnt. She excluded children and old people from the curse. Her curse become a reality which results in huge economic and human loss. Later she withdraw her curse. After this She came to kerala through Kanyakumari. On the way to Kodungallur(a place in kerala) she came through Attukal and rested there. Ladies there gave a warm welcome to kannaki by making pongal. Later a temple was built in the place where kannaki took rest. This is another story behind origin of Attukal Temple.
Main Deity is Kannaki and the other deities in the temple are Lord Shiva, Lord Ganesha, Lord Serpant, Madan Thampuran. Chattambi Swamikal, a famous Social reformer in the history of kerala found this divine temple as a place for meditation. A temple of Chattambi Swamikal can also be found here.
Pongal is usually a dish prepared in Tamil Nadu. Here the main Offering to the goddess is Pongal. Pongal is a sweet Dish made with Rice, Jaggery, Coconut and water in earthen pots. This dish is prepared in fireplace made with bricks. These 5 elements show the relationship of Human life with Pancha Bhutas.
The Pongala Festival is held in the month of february/March. The festival lasts for 10 days. Auspicious Attukal Pongala is done on the 9th day of the festival. Women from different parts of the state, neighbouring states, even from different countries come to takepart in this festival. Every streets, commercial spaces, public places, offices, schools, colleges are filled with Women folk for this pongala festival. Attukal Temple is also called ‘Sabarimala Of Women. The pongala spreads nearly 5km from the circumference of the temple. Women take vratha for 9 days to participate in pongala.
Festival begins with Kappukettu function. From the first day of the festival a famous ritual thottam pattu takes place. This is like a song which tells the whole story of kannaki. The right to sing Thottam pattu goes to a particular family. This is sung in a green shed which is made with coconut leaves in front of the temple. This ritual last till the 10th day of festival. When they sing the part of destruction of Madurai kingdom on the 9th day, the Women light fire to prepare pongala as from announcement from the temple. Women are only allowed to take part in this festival.
Villakku kettu is an offering which is done during the 10 days of festival. It is a huge lamp decorated with flowers, glitter paper, cloth etc. They are taken to the temple and finally it is burnt in the temple.
Thaloppoli is another type of ritual done by girls under 10 years of age on the day of pongala . This is performed for health, wealth and prosperity of the family. The girls are beautifully decorated with little crown with a peacock feather, new dress etc. They bring a Thalam to the temple which contains coconut, a lamp, rice etc.
Kuthiottam is a ritual performed by boys below 12 years of age. It is belived that these boys are injured soldiers of Mahishasura mardhini. They have to stay in the temple for 7 days. They are not allowed to go home for these 7 days. There are some food restriction for these children.They are only allowed to eat food items like fruits which are given from temple. They have to complete 1008 bows with in 7 days. The Kuthiotta vratha begins from the 3rd day of festival.
On that day Devi is taken out of the temple in a colourful procession. It is believed that she comes out to see her devotees and also to visit her brother Dharmasastha(Dharmashasta temple is in Manacaud). The devotees give a warm welcome to Devi with flower garlands, coconut, fruits etc. These kuthiottom boys who dressed up as soldiers, also come along with Goddess. Next day they return back to the temple. The Pongala festival concludes with Guruthi pooja which is a special ritual performed by the main priest.
It is believed that those who pray to Attukal Devi with strong belief and devotion their wishes will be fulfilled by her.
The following ritualistic formalities and schedules are observed at Attukal temple
4.30 Palliyunarthu (waking of the Goddess.)
5.35 Abhishekam (ablutions of the idol in oil, milk etc.)
5.45 Ganapathy homam (specific offering to God Vinayaka)
6.00 Deeparadhana (burning incense and lighting lamps to the Honour and Glory of the Almighty)
6.30 Usha Pooja (Morning rite)
6.50 Usha Sreebali (morning Sreebali)
7.00 Kalabhabhiskekam (consecration by pouring liquid sandal)
8.30 Pantheeradi Pooja (special rite)
12.00 Ucha Pooja (noon rite)
Noon 12.00 Deeparadhana
12.10 Ucha Sreebali (Noon Sreebali)
12.30 Nata adappu (Closure of Sreekovil)
Evening 5.00 Nata Thurappu (Opening of Sreekovil)
7.30 Athazha Pooja (Night rite)
8.00 Deeparadhana (Night rite)
8.05 Athazha Sreebali
8.30 Nata Atappu (Closure of temple Sreekovil)
Pooja timings may be altered on special occasions
There are many items of offerings scheduled in the temple. The devotees are free to have then choice according their need.
Attukal Temple Contact Address / Location
Attukal Bhagavathy Temple,
Thiruvananthapuram – 695 009
Phone Numbers +91-471 – 2463130 (Office) 2456456 (Temple)
Fax +91-471 – 2456457